Blepharitis is a group of ophthalmologic diseases characterized by the development of inflammatory processes in the tissues of the extreme zone of the eyelids.
The disease occurs mainly in a chronic form, and is very difficult to treat, which is explained by the location of the lesion. The most common cause of blepharitis is staphylococcal infection - golden or epidermal. The disease is accompanied by itching, swelling of the edges of the eyelids, inflamed ciliary sacs, secretion of eye secretion.
The delayed treatment allows the disease to progress, causing serious complications that can later cause both a decrease and a total loss of vision.
Causes of development
Blepharitis can have viral, bacterial, fungal, allergic, or tick-borne etiology. Most of all diseases are susceptible to people with chronic systemic pathologies and weak immunity. The development of this disease can occur in the background:
- Penetration of pathogenic microorganisms from the external environment. So, the cause of the pathology can serve as staphylococcus or demodex, which parasitizes mainly on the surface of the skin of the face.
- Chronic diseases. In this case, the bacteria enter the eyelid tissue along with the bloodstream. Usually blepharitis is a frequent companion of diseases such as caries, chronic tonsillitis, chronic sinusitis.
- Refraction disorders. Patients suffering from astigmatism or farsightedness often suffer from outbreaks of blepharitis. The risk group, first of all, includes patients who refuse to wear glasses or CL.
- Allergies. Allergy sufferers often develop allergic blepharitis and conjunctivitis. The reasons for their appearance can be pollen of flowers and plants, animal hair, dust, smoke, polluted air, etc.
- Chronic lesions of the digestive tract. If a patient has a diagnosis of chronic gastritis, cholecystitis, enterocolitis or helminthiasis, then he should be prepared for the pathological lesion to spread to the eyes. The result is conjunctivitis, blepharitis and other ophthalmic diseases.
- Endocrine diseases. More than all of this category of patients are susceptible to blepharitis diabetics. But they are not only diagnosed with blepharitis. Persons with diabetes are susceptible to retinopathy, cataracts, barley and other pathologies of the visual apparatus.
Blepharitis is often infectious in nature, so the patient can become a source of infection. However, others can be calm: the risk that they will fall ill after contact with an infected person is extremely low.
Depending on the location of the focus of inflammation, blepharitis is anterior marginal, posterior marginal, and angular.
- For anterior marginal blepharitis, only the outer ciliary margin of the eyelid is characterized. With this type of disease, eyelashes often begin to fall out in a patient.
- For posterior (angular) blepharitis, inflammation of only one part of the eyelid, external or internal, is characteristic.
The posterior marginal blepharitis is more severe, as it can affect not only the eyelid, but also the conjunctiva, Meibomian glands, and sometimes even the cornea. When blepharitis occurs in parallel with conjunctivitis, talk about the development of blepharoconjunctivitis.
In addition to the previously reviewed species, blepharitis is divided into:
- Scaly. The disease is accompanied by hyperemia, induration, swelling of the eyelids, the appearance of sticky secretions secreted by the eyes, which leads to the gluing of eyelashes. Scales form on the surface of the skin near the ciliary roots. They consist of the epidermis and the dead epithelium of the sebaceous glands. After removal of purulent exudate, neither wounds nor any other injuries remain.
- Ulcerative. This type of blepharitis develops when staphylococci penetrate the hair follicle. At the edges of the eyelids appear ulcerative formations secreting pus. The disease is accompanied by agglutination of the eyelids, and crusts appear at their base, with the separation of which there are wounds on the skin. In their place can form scars, which, in turn, can lead to eyelid deformation. They become uneven, small folds appear on their surface. As a consequence, the growth of eyelashes is disturbed, which causes frequent injuries to the eyeball. Such consequences can be avoided only if the treatment of the disease is started on time.
- Demodectic. This form of blepharitis develops when Demodex mites enter the body. This parasite lives on the skin of many people, and when creating favorable conditions, gets into the eyes. Inflammation is accompanied by not too intense, but constant itching, swelling, eyelid hyperemia. During an ophthalmologic examination of the eyes with a slit lamp, the doctor notes the presence of small scales, which create the impression that the eyelashes are slightly powdered with snow.
- Meybomium. For this type of disease is characterized by damage to the posterior margin or the entire thickness of the century. A careful examination of the eyes indicates the presence of yellow spots on the edges of the eyelids, which appear due to a violation of the outflow of secretion from the meibomian glands. The skin of the eyes is hyperemic and shiny. When removing points on the skin of the eyelids, small scars are formed, which, however, heal quickly. If you do not start treatment in time, then this form of blepharitis can lead to an abscess of the eyelids.
- Allergic. The disease is marked by a sudden onset, and is accompanied by itching, tearing, photophobia, and cutting in the eyes. The eyelids become swollen and red. Conjunctiva is usually involved in this process, so the patient is diagnosed with allergic conjunctivitis.
- Rosacea blepharitis. For the disease is characterized by the appearance of small red-gray lesions on the skin of the eyelids. In parallel, the formation of pustules or rosacea is possible.
Depending on the localization of the lesion, blepharitis can happen:
- Front edge. The pathological process affects only the ciliary edge of the eyelid. Eyelashes begin to stick together, become covered with crusts. Usually caused by demodex or pathogenic microorganisms.
- Back edge. At the same time, the meibomian glands located on the inner side of the eyelid are affected. Such a defeat is fraught with meybomitom. Most often, the pathology is caused by beta-hemolytic streptococcus.
- Angular (angular). The inflammatory process affects the corners of the eyes, but often the conjunctiva is also affected. The causative agent of the disease is usually Moraks-Axenfeld's wand.
Symptoms of blepharitis
When blepharitis patients usually complain about the appearance of:
- itching and / or pain in the eyes;
- feelings of "sand" or a foreign body;
- redness of the eyelids;
- feelings of "heaviness" in the ages;
- pronounced puffiness of the eyelids with concomitant narrowing of the palpebral fissure;
- dry eyes or excessive tearing;
- the accumulation of secretions in the inner corners of the eyes;
- formation of crusts on the eyes after waking up.
In parallel with this, the occurrence of telangiectasia is possible. This is a pathological condition in which capillary dilation occurs, as a result of which reticules or "stars" appear on the surface of the skin.
When blepharitis often develops the so-called dry eye syndrome, which produces too little amount of tear fluid. The consequence of this is dryness, burning, discomfort in the eyes.
What is blepharitis eyes: photo
In the photo below you can see what blepharitis looks like in an adult:Ulcerative blepharitis Scaled blepharitis Meibomium blepharitis Demodectic blepharitis
For an ophthalmologist to diagnose "blepharitis" will not be difficult. For this purpose, a visual inspection and biomicroscopy is carried out.
It is important to find out the reasons for rejection. To do this, the definition of visual acuity is carried out, since refractive disorders can significantly complicate the course of pathology. In addition, fundus examination is performed to identify other diseases. It can also be scraped scales formed on the eyelids - it helps to determine the causative agent of the pathological process, in order to subsequently assign adequate therapy.
Diagnostics should be complex, so after examination by an ophthalmologist, the patient is sent to an otolaryngologist, a dentist, a dermatologist, an endocrinologist, etc.
In the diagnosis of demodicosis, special importance is attached to the results of eyelash microscopy. Norm - no more than 2 ticks in 1 preparation with taking 4 eyelashes from each century (total - 16 pcs.).
Laboratory diagnostics are also carried out, which includes a blood test for sugar, a bacteriological test, an immunoassay, etc.
How to treat blepharitis?
Treatment of blepharitis should be comprehensive. Symptomatic therapy is unacceptable - it is important to eliminate not only the main manifestations of the disease, but also the causes of its development. At the same time it is necessary to rinse the eyes 2 to 3 times a day.
In acute blepharitis, it is necessary to remove the formed scales with a cotton swab moistened with an antiseptic solution (furatsilina). Then the treated zones are lubricated with 1% alcohol solution of greens. In addition, the skin of the eyelids should be ointment Dexamethasone 2-3 times a day.
In case of ulcerative blepharitis, the crusts can be softened only with the help of antibiotic ointments (Tetracycline, Erythromycin), after which the skin is treated with antiseptic solutions. Ointment with a hormonal component in this case is prohibited.
In case of dysfunction of the meibomian glands, it is recommended to carry out the treatment of the eyelids according to the previously described scheme. In parallel, it is necessary to make the masses with the help of a glass rod. The procedure is performed after instillation of the eyes with anesthetics - Dikain or Alkain.
On a note. Regardless of the form of the disease, the eyes must be instilled with antiseptic solutions in order to avoid the spread of the inflammatory process.
Demodectic blepharitis is treated longer than the previously described species. The course of therapy may be more than 1.5 months. The skin of the face is rinsed with tar soap, after which the affected places are treated with antiseptics. 2 - 3 times a day they need to be lubricated with Metrogil gel. With the development of allergies apply ointment with dexamethasone.
To speed up the process of recovery, the patient is prescribed a course of physiotherapy. It is advisable to conduct sessions:
- electrophoresis with vitamin and antibacterial drugs;
- UFO therapy;
- magnetic therapy.
It is important to make adjustments in the diet. The menu should be enriched with protein foods with complete exclusion of allergens. Diabetics are prescribed a strict diet. During the entire period of treatment it is also recommended to take multivitamin complexes.
Some folk remedies are also good to eliminate inflammation. This decoction of chamomile, calendula, as well as strong brewed black and green tea.
Recommendations for patients with inflammation of the eyelids
Women with blepharitis at the time of therapy should be abandoned from the use of decorative cosmetics for the eyes. The chemical elements contained in it, can cause allergies, thereby aggravating the course of the disease.
Contact lenses can be worn only if there is no damage to the conjunctiva and the cornea. Do not wear lenses in the presence of pronounced itching, burning, pain in the eyes. You should also not wear CL if paraffin is included in the eye ointment prescribed by the ophthalmologist.
It is not always possible to completely cure blepharitis. But it is quite possible to prevent its recurrence if one strictly observes the rules of eye and face hygiene in general.
Prognosis and prevention
In most cases, blepharitis can not be completely cured. The only exceptions are the demodecous and ulcerative forms of the disease, which, however, can also recur from time to time. But if you pay attention to the state of immunity and lifestyle, then the re-development of the pathology may not occur.
To avoid relapse, you must:
- Completely give up bad habits. Smoking, alcohol, drug use - all of these factors lead to liver tissue damage. As a result, the body can not fully cope with its functions, and begins to release toxins that poison the entire body. This, in turn, inhibits immunity, for which reason it is not able to fully cope with protective functions. The result of suppression can be not only blepharitis, but other pathologies.
- Timely cure chronic pathology. They create a "stressful" situation and an additional burden on the body. In this case, the visual apparatus does not remain "aside" and suffers no less than other organs.
- Provide complete facial care. Removal of subcutaneous fat, particles of dead epidermis and dust is important for the prevention of not only blepharitis, but also other diseases.
- Make adjustments in lifestyle. Due attention should be paid to physical activity and nutrition, to properly relate the period of work and rest.
- When working at a computer or on paper, you need to do eye exercises every hour, or just sit or lie down with your eyes closed. Like any other part of the human body, the visual apparatus also needs rest.
Blepharitis is not a threat to human life, but it can significantly and extremely adversely affect the quality of his life. It is important to prevent the pathology from going into a chronic form, and this can only be achieved through the timely start of treatment of its acute phase.