Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common hematological diseases.
Moreover, it is more often diagnosed in women, but it can be diagnosed in men. The disease significantly reduces the quality of life, causes dizziness, weakness, fatigue. In addition, the disease is accompanied by dry skin, brittle hair, pale skin, hair loss, tachycardia, shortness of breath, lamination and brittle nails. Due to the lack of iron in the blood, a person becomes sluggish, weak, apathetic, loses vigor and interest in everything that surrounds him.
To confirm the diagnosis of a blood test for hemoglobin and iron. If a decrease in these parameters is detected, special iron-containing medications are prescribed to the patient.
When are iron preparations prescribed?
Iron-based medications are prescribed to patients with diagnosed anemia or a predisposition to the disease. Often the pathological process occurs on the background of malnutrition, during pregnancy, as a complication of various diseases, etc. In these cases, drugs containing salts or iron hydroxide are prescribed. They contribute to the balance of iron in the body, but are chosen individually for each patient.
What is important is not so much the cost of the medication, as the dosage of the trace element in 1 tablet. Proper determination of the right amount of iron helps to avoid overdose of the drug. In addition, the excess substance does not bring any benefit to the body, since it is simply derived from it without assimilation.
In addition to the dose of the active substance, when choosing a medicine, it is necessary to pay attention to:
- Composition. For the treatment of anemia, it is preferable to take a monocomponent drug. But for the prevention of the disease is well suited multivitamin complexes.
- Release form. Usually such drugs are prescribed in pill form. But sometimes there is a need for injecting the drug. This approach to therapy is carried out only in a hospital, or on an outpatient basis, but by a medical specialist.
- Manufacturer and price of the drug. These questions are discussed with each patient individually.
When you receive more than 4 mg of iron per 1 kg increases the likelihood of side effects. They mainly affect the digestive organs, and manifest themselves:
- feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region;
- decrease or loss of appetite;
- abdominal distention;
- constipation or diarrhea;
- pruritus with or without rash.
Keep in mind that staining of feces in a dark color is not a side effect. This is just a sign that the remains of undigested iron have been eliminated from the body.
Intravenous or intramuscular administration of such drugs can cause:
- general malaise;
- metallic taste in the mouth;
- vomiting (infrequently);
- joint or muscle pain;
- hyperthermia (rare)
- anaphylactic shock (rare);
- lymphadenopathy (infrequently);
- facial redness;
- swelling of the skin;
- pain at the injection site;
- skin hyperemia in the puncture zone.
Iron preparations should be taken strictly according to the scheme developed by the doctor. Otherwise, you may experience symptoms of overdose, which are identical to side effects. However, they appear with greater intensity, and can lead to serious consequences - syncope, dehydration, collapse, etc.
When injecting such drugs, overdose can lead to an excess of iron in the body. That is why before the appointment of this form of medication, it is important to conduct a thorough examination of the patient for an objective assessment of his condition.
To eliminate the symptoms of overdose, you must take a sorbent, rinse the stomach. One of the methods to alleviate the condition is artificial stimulation of vomiting, taking raw chicken eggs or milk. If necessary, symptomatic therapy is carried out.
List of drugs for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia
The best drugs for the treatment of this deviation are:
- Maltofer or Maltofer-Foul;
Pregnant women are recommended reception:
- Sorbifera Durules;
Children for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia are prescribed:
Medications for anemia in pill form
Below is a brief overview of the Ferrum tablets used to treat iron deficiency anemia.
- Aktiferrin is a combination drug, dispensed in the form of drops and capsules for oral administration.
- Hemofer Prolongatum - tablets for oral administration.
- Tardiferon is a tablet preparation that, in addition to iron, also contains vitamin C and mucoproteosis.
- Ferrogradumet - tablets, film coated. Contain iron sulphate and plastic matrix.
- Hemsineral TD - granules containing iron, cyanocobalamin and vitamin B9.
- Ferronal is a tablet form of iron containing 300 mg of the active ingredient. Analogue - Ferrogluconate.
- Fenuls is a combination agent released in the form of capsules for n / a administration. It consists of the main components of riboflavin, vitamins C and B9, ferrous sulfate, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, cysteine.
- Gyno-Tardiferon - tablets containing 80 mg of the active substance. In addition to iron, the drug also contains vitamin B9, ascorbic acid and mucoproteosis.
- Heferol - capsules containing 100 mg of iron in 1 pc. Contain fumaric acid.
- Globiron - capsules based on ferrous sulfate, vitamins B6, B9 and B12.
- Totem - solution for oral administration. 1 ampoule contains 10 ml of medication. In addition to iron, the drug includes zinc, sodium benzoate / citrate.
- Ranferon-12 - elixir (5 ml, 41 mg of the active substance) and capsules (100 mg / pc.) For oral administration.
- Sorbifer Durulis - capsules containing 100 mg of iron.
A suitable drug is prescribed by the attending physician individually for each patient, based on the severity of the disease.
Iron preparations for parenteral use
Parenteral therapy is prescribed:
- If iron deficiency anemia has developed against the background of inflammatory bowel lesions, in which oral medication was ineffective.
- Patients undergoing hemodialysis.
- If necessary, a rapid increase in hemoglobin levels to avoid blood transfusions.
Among the injectable iron preparations most often used:
- Ferrum Lek. - the drug is dispensed in 2 ml ampoules containing 100 mg of elemental iron. The drug is intended for intramuscular administration. It contains iron hydroxide and dextran.
- Venofer - solution for intravenous administration. It is released in the form of ampoules, each of which contains 5 ml (100 mg) of iron. The drug is made on the basis of iron hydroxide.
- Ferkoven is an intravenous injection solution containing iron saharat, cobalt gluconate and carbohydrate solution. 1 ampoule contains 1 ml of injection liquid.
- Gektofer - kmbinirovanny drug for injection. Made on the basis of iron and citrate sorbitol. In each ampoule, 2 ml of solution, which is intended for intramuscular injection.
- Ferrlecite is a drug that is produced in the form of an injection solution and contains an iron-gluconate complex. This is an injection solution dispensed in 1 ampoules (for intramuscular administration) and 5 ml (for intravenous administration).
- Ferbitol is an injection solution made on the basis of an iron sorbitol complex. The drug is dispensed in 1 ml ampoules, and is intended for intramuscular administration.
Recommendations during the reception
To make the treatment of iron deficiency anemia as safe as possible, you need to remember a few important rules:
- categorically it is not recommended to crush, dissolve, crush or chew the tablets / capsules - they must be swallowed whole, washed down with plenty of water;
- drugs are not washed down with anything other than pure non-carbonated water;
- two hours before and after taking the pill do not eat dairy products (ideally for the period of treatment it is recommended to eliminate it from the diet);
- iron preparations should not be combined with antibiotics (in particular, tetracyclines and lincosamides) and antacids, since these drugs interfere with the full absorption of the former into the systemic circulation;
- throughout the course of therapy, you should carefully listen to your feelings, and in case of any ailments, immediately consult a doctor;
- one should not try to cope with the side effects provoked by iron preparations, as it is impossible to ignore them;
- it is unacceptable to independently select substitutes for a medicine prescribed by a doctor if it did not fit due to certain circumstances;
- to speed up the process of iron absorption, preparations based on it are recommended to be taken along with succinic or ascorbic acid;
- the combination of iron preparations with inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE: Captopress, Captopril, etc.) increases the likelihood of systemic effects.
It should be borne in mind that therapy with these drugs is designed for a long period of time. After 3 months from the start of treatment, a second blood test is performed to assess hemoglobin and iron levels. If necessary, the therapy will be extended for another three months. Thus, the full course lasts about six months. But, of course, all this is purely individual.
Why treatment can be ineffective?
Therapy may fail for several reasons:
- the diagnosis was wrong;
- the doctor picked up the wrong dosage of medication, or prescribed the wrong drug;
- treatment was interrupted prematurely;
- the patient ignored the instructions of the attending physician;
- the patient has problems with the absorption of iron in the body;
- the person has individual intolerance or hypersensitivity to iron preparations.
If the diagnosis is correct, then all that remains for the patient is to wait for the results, and they will definitely manifest. But in the case when the treatment is unsuccessful, it is necessary to revise the diagnosis. The patient may be suffering from a different type of anemia, and he needs a completely different therapy.
In the absence of the possibility of making an accurate diagnosis, even with all the results of analyzes, it can be a question of iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia. It is a genetically determined disease that is not amenable to treatment with oral preparations of ferrum. When administered parenterally, the result is temporary.
Such a deviation is due to a gene mutation, resulting in an increase in the level of hepcidin in the blood. This substance is responsible for suppressing the absorption of iron in the body, and inhibits its release from macrophages. Methods of effective treatment of such disorders have not yet been developed.
Nutrition and Prevention
Anemia can be prevented if included in the diet:
- red meat;
- poultry meat;
- spinach and other green and leafy vegetables;
- different types of dried fruits;
- buckwheat and other types of cereals containing iron;
Vegetarians are recommended to make a menu for the day from:
- lentil dishes;
- whole grain bread;
- peanut butter;
- brown rice.
To replenish the balance of ascorbic acid in the body, it is recommended to use as much as possible:
- Bulgarian pepper;
In parallel, the abuse of caffeinated beverages, calcium-fortified foods and whole-grain products should be avoided. A balanced diet high in vitamins and ferrum helps to prevent the development of iron deficiency anemia without the need for taking medication with iron.