Avitaminosis is a pathology that develops on the background of an unhealthy diet with a predominance of food, devoid of certain useful substances.
This condition should not be confused with hypovitaminosis, which is characterized by a reduced amount of a particular element or elements. With avitaminosis, its level is almost zero.
The symptomatology in this case will appear quite brightly, sharply. But the clinical picture with vitamin deficiency depends directly on what kind of substance is not in the blood. Most of all, such a deviation affects girls who are on tough diets or who are tormenting themselves with starvation for weight loss.
For the full functioning of the body man needs vitamins:
- For hair - riboflavin, retinol, pyridoxine, vitamins F, H.
- For eyes - retinol and vitamins of group B.
- For teeth - tocopherol and calciferol.
- For nails: retinol, calciferol, ascorbic acid.
For the health of the skin and the whole body, a whole complex of vitamins is needed: retinol (A), vitamin B group, tocopherol and vitamin F.
Causes of beriberi
Factors that can trigger the development of beriberi are divided into exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal). The first group also includes errors in nutrition, and the impact of certain provocateurs on the human body.
Thus, avitaminosis in non-pathological etiology can be a consequence of:
- irrational introduction of complementary foods in the children's menu;
- hard diets;
- the use of substandard, spoiled products;
- improper storage of products;
- incomplete or inefficient heat treatment of food;
- taking medications that violate the vitamin balance or reduce the absorption of nutrients into the blood.
Strong vitamin deficiencies can develop in the background:
- unsatisfactory or extreme living conditions;
- constant stress;
- any kind of addiction;
- increased physical activity.
Avitaminosis can develop when a patient has certain diseases or pathological conditions:
- disorders of the digestive tract;
- incomplete development of the gastrointestinal tract in children;
- endocrine disorders;
- reduced immunity;
- vitamin absorption disorders;
- parasitic invasions;
- intestinal dysbiosis;
- renal and hepatic pathologies.
Avitaminosis does not have universal symptoms, since its manifestations are directly dependent on what kind of vitamin is missing in the body. You can suspect the presence of such pathological deviations by the presence of a person:
- general weakness;
- rapid fatigue;
- decreased vision (with a severe retinol deficiency);
- propensity to fractures, dislocations, subluxations (with a lack of calciferol);
- disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
- skin peeling;
- sleep disorders;
- mood swings.
Of course, such symptoms occur in many other diseases, so you should not make a diagnosis on your own, but you should immediately seek medical help.
Classification and symptoms of beriberi
Symptoms and treatment of beriberi depends on what element is missing in the human body. It is noteworthy that women on strict diets, most often revealed a lack of several nutrients.
Vitamin A vitamin deficiency
Retinol plays an important role in the work of the visual apparatus and the skin, so when it is lacking a person begins to suffer from:
- blurred twilight vision;
- dry ophthalmic mucosa;
- dryness of the epidermis;
- formation of abscesses or inflammations on the skin;
- exfoliation of the epidermal layer of the skin.
With a lack of retinol in the child’s body, serious problems may arise with the overall development of the child. So, it concerns not only the physical development and growth of the organism, but also the formation and functioning of its nervous system. In parallel with this, there is a significant inhibition of the activity of the immune system, which can result in a high incidence of disease.
Group B vitamin deficiency
Vitamins of group B are responsible for the activity of many organs and systems, therefore it is better not to allow their level in the body to decrease. If this type of avitaminosis has already developed, then the nervous and digestive systems will be the first to suffer.
So, in this situation, a person will suffer from insomnia, mood swings, and general breakdown. Limb tremor, memory impairment and concentration problems may occur.
Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract manifest digestive disorders - constipation, diarrhea, loss of or complete loss of appetite. The mucous membranes become inflamed, and around the mouth, "bunches" are formed.
Type C vitamin deficiency
A lack of vitamin C in the body is accompanied by a whole complex of disorders:
- decrease in working capacity;
- increased fatigue;
- constant sleepiness;
- increased susceptibility to infectious diseases;
- reduced elasticity of the skin;
- the formation of bruises and hemorrhages even after minor blows;
- decreased visual acuity.
With severe vitamin deficiency C, the disease develops, accompanied by bleeding gums and tooth loss.
Avitaminosis type D
The lack of calciferol in the body most often affects the work of the ODA. In children, pathological deviation is accompanied by:
- the development of rickets;
- increased fatigue;
- violation of the formation of the teeth and skeleton.
In an adult, vitamin deficiency is manifested mainly by the fragility of bones, pain in muscles and joints, and destruction of teeth. In addition, such a deviation is fraught with the development of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or even cancer.
Lack of tocopherol
With a lack of vitamin E disrupted the reproductive system. In parallel, the development of fatty hepatosis of the liver.
Vitamin PP vitamin deficiency
With this vitamin deficiency suffers primarily the digestive tract. At first, a person feels aversion to any food, after which he develops dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth, nausea, vomiting, and defecation disorder.
In parallel with this, there is a decrease in the production of gastric juice, accompanied by a general deterioration of health. It is also possible violations of the skin, manifested by the roughness of the epidermis and depigmentation.
Vitamin deficiency in children
Avitaminosis is more common in young children than in adults. This is explained by the fact that their immune and digestive systems are not yet fully strengthened, therefore, they cannot fully perform their functions.
In childhood deficiency of vitamins can lead to the development of rickets or ichthyosis. In view of this, when the previously listed symptoms appear in a child, it is necessary to consult a pediatrician.
How to treat avitaminosis?
Launched beriberi are difficult to treat, so do not bring the situation to the extreme. In this situation, therapy is carried out in a hospital, but if the pathology is moderate, then it can be cured with:
- poly or monovitamin complexes;
- means of alternative medicine.
Secondary avitaminosis is treated together with the disease that provoked its development. When treating children, it is important to regularly take walks in the fresh air, sunbathe and harden.
Nutrition and Diet
Food consumed by a person with vitamin deficiency should contain the maximum amount of missing vitamins.
It is worth remembering that the vast majority of vitamins are destroyed by high temperatures. Steaming is the most gentle method of cooking. Slow exposure to steam allows vitamins to be preserved. Contributes to the conservation of vitamins by roasting on the grill or in the oven. It is recommended to wrap products with foil, which will prevent oxidation and loss of vitamins. The most destructive method of cooking is frying. To reduce the loss of vitamins, foods should be cut into thin slices or in small pieces and fry over high heat.
List of products to be taken:
|Title||Animal products||Herbal Products|
|Retinol (Vitamin A)||Butter, hard cheese, eggs, beef liver, fish oil.||Carrots, kiwi, oranges, tangerines, hawthorn.|
|Thiamine (Vitamin B1)||Offal (liver, heart), egg yolk, dairy products.||Soy, wheat and oat bran, peas, beans, groats (buckwheat, oats).|
|Riboflavin (vitamin B2)||Milk, cheese, cottage cheese, fatty fish, beef, rabbit meat.||Spinach, green peas, cabbage (cauliflower and broccoli), sweet peppers, dill, green onions.|
|Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)||Mushrooms, rice, wheat germinated grains, brewer's yeast, rye flour.||Beef, beef liver, sea fish, kidneys.|
|Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)||Soy, walnuts, hazelnuts, potatoes, corn, pomegranate, banana, green pepper.||Offal (brain, liver, kidney), eggs, chicken, tuna, mackerel.|
|Folic acid (vitamin B9)||Leafy vegetables (spinach, lettuce, parsley), onions, avocados, melons, apricots.||Animal liver, pork, beef, chicken, eggs, dairy products, fatty fish.|
|Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)||In small quantities represented in seaweed.||Liver, kidney, heart, hard and semi-hard cheeses, sardines, salmon.|
|Tocopherol (Vitamin E)||Vegetable oil, cereals and legumes, cabbage, nuts, sunflower seeds, pumpkins.||Beef and chicken liver, eggs.|
|Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)||Rosehip, black currant, pepper, sea buckthorn, green sorrel, spinach, oranges, lemons.||Practically not present in animal products.|
|Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol (vitamin D)||Milk, eggs, cod liver, fish oil, red caviar, salmon.||Mushrooms (only those that are grown in the sun).|
|Nicotinic acid (vitamin PP)||Sunflower and pumpkin seeds, green vegetables, nuts.||Dairy products, cheese, fish, meat (chicken, beef, pork).|
All consumed products must be fresh. Vegetables, fruits and berries should be thoroughly washed, meat and fish should be fully heat treated. Dairy products should have a minimum shelf life.
Vitamins and complexes
Modern drugs contain only natural, chemically pure vitamins, therefore, unlike drugs of plant or animal origin, they have virtually no flaws. But in order for vitamin therapy to benefit, you need to remember that most of the vitamins are absorbed only during meals. It is unacceptable to drink the drug coffee, milk or carbonated water - it can disrupt the process of absorption of nutrients.
Modern vitamins are available in the form of:
Important! Vitamins for vitamin deficiency should be selected only by a nutritionist. If a person refuses self-treatment, the prognosis for recovery will be as favorable as possible.
The best option for vitamins are capsules, which, moving along the intestine, lose layer after layer, and therefore, easier to digest. Capsule cannot be chewed. During reception, it is necessary to drink a sufficient amount of liquid. The best time to use the drug is morning.
It is unacceptable to take an increased dose of the prescribed complex. An overdose can adversely affect your health!
Avitaminosis prevention should be carried out regularly. It consists in:
- rational, balanced nutrition with the use of foods enriched with vitamins;
- proper cooking (steamed or covered during cooking);
- rejection of addictions;
- treatment of all existing diseases, including chronic;
- providing additional intake of vitamins in the body during pregnancy, or at elevated loads;
- taking vitamin and mineral complexes.
Products enriched with vitamins, which must be paid attention first of all:
- Alfalfa. Enriched with vitamin A, the concentration of which in this plant is 6 times higher than the level of its content in carrots. Fresh grass is added to salads, or homemade juices, decoctions are made from it.
- Brewer's yeast - enriched with thiamine and riboflavin. Vitamins B1 and B2 are also contained in almond and walnut, whole wheat.
- Whole wheat is also a rich source of pyridoxine - vitamin B6. The daily rate of substance can be obtained from a total of 156 g of cereal.
- Seaweed will supply the body with the required dose of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12).
- Rosehip supplies ascorbic acid. In the second and third places after it go kiwi pepper. Lemon in this chain is only on the 6th place.
- Vitamin E can be obtained from corn oil. 5 g of this product per day will be enough to get the right dose of the substance.
- Spinach is richly enriched with vitamin K. Moreover, it does not lose it even after freezing.
It is extremely difficult to assess the effect of vitamins on the body, entering the body along with food. But although their action is imperceptible, nevertheless, they work. With improper and unbalanced nutrition, a violation of the entire body's activity occurs, a person begins to lose strength and energy. But it is impossible to determine avitaminosis "by eye", therefore it is not always possible to start its treatment in a timely manner.