Pollinosis is one of the varieties of allergic pathologies, which often manifests itself during the period of active flowering of plants, shrubs and other representatives of the flora.
“Hay fever” has no age limit, but it has been proven that it is mostly women who live in the city. Lack of treatment is fraught with serious consequences, since pollinosis is able to turn into bronchial asthma.
"Hay fever" is a fairly common pathology. And if, in childhood, boys suffer from it in most cases, then among adult patients women are between 25 and 45 years old. The disease does not lead to death, but it significantly reduces the quality of human life, especially if it is joined by secondary diseases - atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, etc.
What it is?
Pollinosis is a disease characterized by the development of an allergic reaction to pollen of various plants. The incidence of the disease ranges from 0.2% to 39% around the globe. Hay fever is detected mainly at the age of 10 - 40 years. Seasonal allergic rhinitis, as one of the symptoms of pathology, occurs in many adolescent children.
For the first time pollinosis appears, as a rule, at the age of 8 - 11 years. In children, boys are predominantly ill with hay fever, but by the age of majority the incidence of the disease becomes almost the same in men and women.
Pollen of plants, which may belong to the group of weeds, grasses and trees, is one of the most powerful allergens, therefore, most often it acts as a pollinosis provocateur. Such particles can be examined only under a microscope, the allergic person himself does not have the opportunity to see it. Deposing on the skin and falling on the mucous membranes, pollen causes allergic reactions, the manifestation of which may have different intensity.
- The second half of spring. At this time, trees are in the phase of active flowering, and the pollen of many of them is a strong allergen. In particular, these are oak, poplar, birch, hazel, etc.
- From June to the end of July. This period is accompanied by the flowering of cereal crops - cereals and bluegrass. So, pollen of rye, wheat, foxtail, fescue, bluegrass, and wheatgrass can provoke allergies. In most cases, people living on the periphery of cities or in villages suffer from pollinosis caused by these cultures.
- From August to September. This is a time of flowering of weeds - quinoa, ambrosia, timothy, etc.
The intensity and frequency of hay fever depends on weather conditions. Thus, in dry and windy weather, the concentration of pollen in the air increases. Consequently, the symptoms appear brighter, more intense. On a damp, cold and rainy day, the pollen in the air is much less, so the symptoms will be mild or not at all.
Pollinosis has its own reasons for development. More precisely, it is a risk group, which includes not all people. So, the appearance of symptoms of hay fever may be due to:
- genetic predisposition (more often on the maternal line);
- frequent infectious pathologies of the respiratory system (and not only);
- complications during the birth of expectant mothers;
- unhealthy diet;
- bad habits (especially smoking);
- alcohol abuse;
- certain climatic conditions;
- work in harmful enterprises.
Not to mention the numerous herbal remedies that are in pharmacy chains in the public domain. Many parents use them to treat various pathologies in children, without thinking about the possible consequences. Due to such carelessness, hay fever or exudative diathesis may well develop, which is also considered a type of allergic disease.
Take, for example, such seemingly safe and useful medicinal plants as a string or chamomile. Their use for bathing, washing the nose or eyes of children is advisable only if there is no predisposition to allergies. If there is one, but the parents do not know about it, using such plants for hygienic or medicinal purposes, they thereby provoke a hypersensitivity reaction in their child.
Another powerful allergen is honey, although other bee products can increase the sensitization of the human body, both adults and children.
The manifestation of cross-allergy is observed during the flowering period of plants from the Aster family. Patients prone to allergic reactions are not recommended to use citrus, honey, nuts, mustard. Along with this, it is contraindicated to drink champagne and vermouth. Neglect of these warnings is fraught with the development of urticaria, angioedema, or even anaphylactic shock.
Pollinosis is an immediate type of allergic reaction. After exposure of the mucous membrane allergen, antibodies are synthesized (immunoglobulins E). They, connecting with allergic agents, provoke the activation of mast cells with the repeated penetration of the allergen into the blood. As a result, prostaglandins, histamines, leukotrienes and other elements are released.
Against this background, an allergic inflammatory reaction develops, in which there is an increased secretion of mucus and the depressed functioning of the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Under the influence of histamine, the blood vessels dilate, BP decreases. With the expansion of cerebral arterioles, an increase in the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid is observed, which causes cephalgia.
An increase in the level of histamine in the blood can provoke urticaria, hyperthermia, difficulty breathing associated with spasm of smooth muscles and swelling of the respiratory tract mucosa. Tachycardia develops, salivation increases, many other symptoms occur. Thus, most of the symptoms of hay fever are due to the effect of histamine on the body.
Symptoms of pollinosis
Usually hay fever develops in 2 stages. In the first stage, patients complain of itching and tickling in the nose, ears, trachea, and throat. Eyelids swell and redden, there is a continuous, obsessive sneezing. Transparent mucus begins to flow from the nose, and watery eyes appear. Further development of allergic conjunctivitis is noted.
The second phase of pollinosis occurs 6 to 8 hours after the allergen has entered the body. The intensity of the inflammatory reaction increases, the eye discharge becomes purulent. Possible increase in body temperature.
In some patients, urticaria develops, there is difficulty breathing. In severe cases, developing angioedema, cystitis, atopic dermatitis, inflammation of the external genital organs, or an anaphylactic reaction that can develop into shock.
In case of pollinosis symptoms of general intoxication of the body appear. The patient complains of weakness, fatigue, rapid fatigability, depressed psychoemotional state, drowsiness. If the patient has swallowed the pollen, then the symptoms of pollinosis will manifest as dyspeptic disorders.
What to do in case of worsening symptoms of pollinosis?
To relieve symptoms of exacerbation of pollinosis, you need:
- prevent further contact with the allergen;
- take an antihistamine prescribed by a doctor;
- daily wet cleaning of the house;
- more often to do water treatments - take a shower or bath;
- provide full air humidification in the room;
- close all windows for a day to avoid the ingress of allergens with fresh air streams (but it is still necessary to ventilate the house, and it is better to do this at night or immediately after the rain);
- on dry wind days, if possible, stay home.
How to treat pollinosis?
It is almost impossible to completely get rid of pollen hypersensitivity. But the development of symptoms can be prevented by avoiding contact with an irritant. If the next attack of an allergic reaction has already made itself felt, then it can be stopped with the help of special antihistamines.
As already noted, the main focus in the treatment of pollinosis is the appointment of antihistamine drugs to the patient. They block the release of histamine from immune cells into the blood, thereby stopping or preventing its action on the body.
There are 3 generations (in some classifications - 4) of antihistamines, but when pollinosis is most often prescribed means of the first group:
- their analogues.
But most of these drugs have a sedative effect, so they are recommended to be combined with 2 generation antihistamines that do not provoke drowsiness:
- or their analogues.
Acceptance of first-generation antihistamines for pollinosis is imperative. They help eliminate rhinitis, facilitate nasal breathing. They should be taken at night, in contrast to drugs of the 3 groups, which are drunk once a day in the morning. The effect of antihistamine 3 generations lasts for a day.
For severe allergic manifestations, hormone preparations Prednisolone or Metipred are prescribed to patients. In this case, such drugs are mandatory taken in combination with "protective" drugs - Omeprazole and Almagel.
If the symptoms of pollinosis persist or return after the abolition of first-generation antihistamines, allergists prescribe a drug that blocks histamine Ketotifen receptors. It has a prolonged effect, but the effect of its reception is manifested only after 1 - 2 months from the moment of initiation of therapy. The medicine well prevents such manifestations of allergy as dry cough, shortness of breath, rashes, rhinitis and lacrimation.
Nasal drops or aerosols are also used for allergic rhinitis:
- Allegolil spray.
With the development of sinusitis on the background of pollinosis, doctors prescribe hormonal nasal sprays:
This method of therapy is practiced during periods of remission - the time when the symptoms of pollinosis subside. The term "desensitization" implies the gradual training of the body to specific doses of a specific allergen.
The essence of the method is the introduction into the body of allergies small doses of purified pollen stimuli. This approach to therapy helps prevent the development of a violent reaction of the body to the effects of the allergen. Due to this, resistance to the influence of such substances develops, as a result of which a person begins to feel completely healthy.
The course of desensitization lasts from several weeks to several months. Its continuation is determined individually, because it depends on how quickly the body gets used to the effects of pollen allergens, and stops responding to it.
Nutrition and Diet with Pollinosis
Before prescribing an optimal diet for pollinosis, it is necessary to establish the type of pollen allergy.
If you are allergic to tree pollen, it is recommended that the patient exclude from the diet such foods as:
- Birch juice;
- apricots, peaches;
- cherry, sweet cherry;
- nuts (for example, almonds, hazelnuts);
- apples, pears;
- cucumbers, tomatoes;
- greens and spices (eg curry, cumin).
If you are allergic to grass pollen, the patient should refrain from taking:
- cereal products (eg rice balls, oatmeal);
- bakery products;
- alcoholic beverages;
- citrus fruits (for example, orange, mandarin);
- strawberries, strawberries;
- herbal remedies, which include cereal grasses.
In case of allergy to weed pollen, the patient is advised to exclude from the diet such foods as:
- sunflower seeds;
- sunflower oil;
- citrus fruits (for example, oranges, tangerines, lemons);
- melons and gourds (eg watermelons, melons);
- greens (for example, parsley, dill, celery);
- spices (for example, anise, cumin, chicory);
- Phytopreparations from a dandelion, a wormwood, camomiles, a calendula, a yarrow.
Among the foods that most often cause allergic reactions, the following are distinguished:
- dairy products (for example, cow's whole milk, cheese, chicken eggs);
- red berries (for example, strawberries, raspberries);
- citrus fruits (for example, mandarins, oranges);
- red vegetables (for example, tomatoes, beets, carrots);
- exotic fruits (for example, pineapple, mango);
- smoked meat;
- canned and pickled products.
Features of treatment during pregnancy
Treatment of pollinosis in pregnant women is difficult, since most of the drugs they are prohibited. But the constant nasal congestion can lead to insufficient oxygen supply of the child, which after birth can result in bronchial asthma. Such a violation can also provoke premature labor.
In this case, patients are advised to temporarily change their place of residence. If this is not possible from the beginning of pregnancy, then it should be done, at least, starting from the 30th week of gestation.
If this is not possible, but the woman is aware of her illness, she should start to use in advance the means that prevent the penetration of allergens into the blood: Prevalin Allerji or Nazaval Plus. They are applied before going out. After coming home, you should rinse your nose with saline - home or ready: Quixom, Humer, Aqua Maris, etc.
As an exception, some antihistamine medications (Fexofast or its analogues) may be prescribed to pregnant women. As for vasoconstrictor drops, expectant mothers are allowed to use only some of them (for example, Lasolvana Reno), and only starting from the second trimester. In case of complicated course of pollinosis, the patient is hospitalized in the hospital, where a course of antiallergic therapy using GCS and oxygen is conducted.
It is possible to prevent the relapse of pollinosis if:
- if it is possible to leave for another climatic zone during the active flowering of plants whose pollens provoke allergies;
- do not leave the city during flowering periods;
- regularly air the room and do wet cleaning in the house;
- take a shower after each arrival from the street;
- gargle and rinse eyes during sharpening hay fever;
- it is not recommended to dry things outside in the spring and summer, because they will accumulate allergens in the air.
Completely eliminate the risk of recurrence of pollinosis, following these recommendations, will not work, but it will be possible to reduce it as much as possible.